Class Vpim::DirectoryInfo::Field
In: lib/vpim/field.rb
Parent: Object

A field in a directory info object.


[]   []=   copy   create   create_array   decode   each_param   encode   encoding   group   group=   group?   kind   kind?   name   name?   param   params   pnames   pref=   pref?   pvalue   pvalue_iadd   pvalue_idel   pvalues   text=   to_date   to_s   to_text   to_time   type?   value   value=   value?   value_raw  

Public Class methods

Create a field with name name (a String), value value (see below), and optional parameters, params. params is a hash of the parameter name (a String) to either a single string or symbol, or an array of strings and symbols (parameters can be multi-valued).

If ‘ENCODING’ => :b64 is specified as a parameter, the value will be base-64 encoded. If it‘s already base-64 encoded, then use String values (‘ENCODING’ => ‘B’), and no further encoding will be done by this routine.

Currently handled value types are:

  • Time, encoded as a date-time value
  • Date, encoded as a date value
  • String, encoded directly
  • Array of String, concatentated with ’;’ between them.

TODO - need a way to encode String values as TEXT, at least optionally, so as to escape special chars, etc.


  • Field should know which param values and field values are case-insensitive, configurably, so it can down case them
  • perhaps should have pvalue_set/del/add, perhaps case-insensitive, or pvalue_iset/idel/iadd, where set sets them all, add adds if not present, and del deletes any that are present
  • I really, really, need a case-insensitive string…
  • should allow nil as a field value, its not the same as ’’, if there is more than one pvalue, the empty string will show up. This isn‘t strictly disallowed, but its odd. Should also strip empty strings on decoding, if I don‘t already.

Create a field by decoding line, a String which must already be unfolded. Decoded fields are frozen, but see copy().

Public Instance methods


Alias for pvalues

Set a the param pname‘s value to pvalue, replacing any value it currently has. See Field.create() for a description of pvalue.


 if field['TYPE']
   field['TYPE'] << 'HOME'
   field['TYPE'] = [ 'HOME' ]

TODO - this could be an alias to pvalue_set

Create a copy of Field. If the original Field was frozen, this one won‘t be.

Yield once for each param, name is the parameter name, value is an array of the parameter values.

The String encoding of the Field. The String will be wrapped to a maximum line width of width, where +0+ means no wrapping, and nil is to accept the default wrapping (75, recommended by RFC2425).

Note: 3.0.3 neither understands to unwrap lines when it imports vCards (it treats them as raw new-line characters), nor wraps long lines on export. This is mostly a cosmetic problem, but wrapping can be disabled by setting width to +0+, if desired.

FIXME - breaks round-trip encoding, need to change this to not wrap fields that are already wrapped.

The value of the ENCODING parameter, if present, or nil if not present.

The group, if present, or nil if not present.

Set the group of this field to group.

Is the group of this field group? Group names are case insensitive. A group of nil matches if the field has no group.

The type of the value, as specified by the VALUE parameter, nil if unspecified.

Is the value of this field of type kind? RFC2425 allows the type of a fields value to be encoded in the VALUE parameter. Don‘t rely on its presence, they aren‘t required, and usually aren‘t bothered with. In cases where the kind of value might vary (an iCalendar DTSTART can be either a date or a date-time, for example), you are more likely to see the kind of value specified explicitly.

The value types defined by RFC 2425 are:

  • uri:
  • text:
  • date: a list of 1 or more dates
  • time: a list of 1 or more times
  • date-time: a list of 1 or more date-times
  • integer:
  • boolean:
  • float:

Is the name of this Field name? Names are case insensitive.


Alias for pvalues


Alias for pnames

An Array of all the param names.

Set whether a field is marked as preferred. See pref?

Is this field marked as preferred? A vCard field is preferred if type?(‘PREF’). This method is not necessarily meaningful for non-vCard profiles.

The first value of the param name, nil if there is no such param, the param has no value, or the first param value is zero-length.

Add pvalue to the param pname‘s value. The values are treated as a set so duplicate values won‘t occur, and String values are case insensitive. See Field.create() for a description of pvalue.

Delete pvalue from the param pname‘s value. The values are treated as a set so duplicate values won‘t occur, and String values are case insensitive. pvalue must be a single String or Symbol.

The Array of all values of the param name, nil if there is no such param, [] if the param has no values. If the Field isn‘t frozen, the Array is mutable.

Convert value to text, then assign.

TODO - unimplemented

The value as an array of Date objects (all times and dates in RFC2425 are lists, even where it might not make sense, such as a birthday).

The field value may be a list of either DATE or DATE-TIME values, decoding is tried first as a DATE-TIME, then as a DATE, if neither works an InvalidEncodingError will be raised.


Alias for encode

The value as text. Text can have escaped newlines, commas, and escape characters, this method will strip them, if present.

In theory, value could also do this, but it would need to know that the value is of type ‘TEXT’, and often for text values the ‘VALUE’ parameter is not present, so knowledge of the expected type of the field is required from the decoder.

The value as an array of Time objects (all times and dates in RFC2425 are lists, even where it might not make sense, such as a birthday). The time will be UTC if marked as so (with a timezone of "Z"), and in localtime otherwise.

TODO - support timezone offsets

TODO - if year is before 1970, this won‘t work… but some people are generating calendars saying Canada Day started in 1753! That‘s just wrong! So, what to do? I add a message saying what the year is that breaks, so they at least know that its ridiculous! I think I need my own DateTime variant.

Is one of the values of the TYPE parameter of this field type? The type parameter values are case insensitive. False if there is no TYPE parameter.

TYPE parameters are used for general categories, such as distinguishing between an email address used at home or at work.

The decoded value.

The encoding specified by the encoding, if any, is stripped.

Note: Both the RFC 2425 encoding param ("b", meaning base-64) and the vCard 2.1 encoding params ("base64", "quoted-printable", "8bit", and "7bit") are supported.


  • should use the VALUE parameter
  • should also take a default value type, so it can be converted if VALUE parameter is not present.

Set the value of this field to value. Valid values are as in Field.create().

Is the value of this field value? The check is case insensitive. FIXME - it shouldn‘t be insensitive, make a casevalue? method.

The undecoded value, see value.